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Spinous process is a bony projection off the posterior (back) of each vertebra. The spinous process protrudes where the laminae of the vertebral arch join and provides the point of attachment for muscles and ligaments of the spine. Spinous processes are the ridges that can be felt through the skin along the back of the spine.


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Define spinous process. spinous process synonyms, spinous process pronunciation, spinous process translation, English dictionary definition of spinous process.


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Definition of spinous process of vertebra in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is spinous process of vertebra? Meaning of spinous process of vertebra as a legal term. What does spinous process of vertebra mean in law?


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Unlike the other cervical vertebrae, the C7 has a large spinous process that protrudes posteriorly toward the skin at the back of the neck. This spinous process can be easily seen and felt at the base of the neck, making it a prominent landmark of the skeleton and giving the C7 the name vertebra prominens.


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Unlike the other cervical vertebrae, the C7 has a large spinous process that protrudes posteriorly toward the skin at the back of the neck. This spinous process can be easily seen and felt at the base of the neck, making it a prominent landmark of the skeleton and giving the C7 the name vertebra prominens.


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Synonyms for spinous at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Find descriptive alternatives for spinous.


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The spinous processes are short and often bifurcated (the spinous process of C7, however, is not bifurcated, and is substantially longer than that of the other cervical spinous processes). The atlas differs from the other vertebrae in that it has no body and no spinous process.


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A section of theshowing multiple vertebrae in a left posterolateral view.
The basic configuration of a vertebra varies; the large part is the body, and the central part is the centrum.
The upper and lower surfaces of the vertebra body give attachment to the.
The posterior part of a vertebra forms a vertebral arch, in eleven parts, consisting of two pedicles, two laminae, and seven.
The laminae give attachment to the ligaments of the spine.
There are vertebral notches formed from the shape of the pedicles, which form the when the vertebrae.
These foramina are the entry and exit conducts for the.
The body of the vertebra and the vertebral arch form the vertebral foramen, the larger, central opening that accommodates thewhich encloses and protects the.
Vertebrae articulate with each other to give strength and flexibility to the spinal column, and the shape at their back and front aspects determines the range of movement.
Structurally, vertebrae are essentially alike across the vertebrate species, with the greatest difference seen between an and other vertebrate animals.
As such, vertebrates take their name from the vertebrae that compose the vertebral column.
The size of the vertebrae varies according to placement in thespinal loading, posture and pathology.
Along the length of the the vertebrae change to accommodate different needs related to stress and mobility.
Anatomy of a vertebra Every vertebra has a body, which consists of a large anterior middle portion called the centrum plural centra and a posterior vertebral arch, also called a neural arch.
The body is composed ofwhich is the spongy type ofwhose micro-anatomy has been specifically studied within the pedicle bones.
This cancellous bone is in turn, covered by a thin coating of or compact bonethe hard and dense type of osseous tissue.
The vertebral arch and processes have thicker coverings of cortical bone.
The upper and lower surfaces of the body of the vertebra are flattened and rough in order to spinous process definition attachment to the.
These surfaces are the vertebral endplates which are in direct contact with the intervertebral discs and form the joint.
The endplates are formed from a thickened layer of the cancellous bone of the vertebral body, the top layer being more dense.
The endplates function to contain the adjacent discs, to evenly spread the applied loads, and to provide anchorage for the of the disc.
They also act as a semi-permeable interface for the exchange of water and solutes.
The vertebral arch is formed by pedicles and laminae.
Two pedicles extend from the sides of the vertebral body to join the body to the arch.
The pedicles are short thick that extend, one from each side, posteriorly, from the junctions of the posteriolateral surfaces of the centrum, on its upper surface.
From each pedicle a broad plate, a lamina, projects backwards and medialwards to join and complete the vertebral arch and form the posterior border of the vertebral foramen, which completes the triangle of the vertebral foramen.
The upper surfaces of the laminae are rough to give attachment to the.
These ligaments connect the laminae of adjacent vertebra along the length of the spine from the level of the second cervical vertebra.
Above and below the pedicles are shallow depressions called vertebral notches superior and inferior.
When the vertebrae the notches align with those on adjacent vertebrae and these form the openings of the.
The foramina allow the entry and exit of the spinal nerves from each vertebra, together with associated blood vessels.
The articulating vertebrae provide a strong pillar of support for the body.
There are seven processes projecting from the vertebra; a spinous process, two transverse processes, and four.
A major part of a vertebra is a backward extending spinous process sometimes called the neural spine which projects centrally.
This process points and from the junction of the laminae.
The spinous process serves to attach and.
The two transverse processes, one on each side of the vertebral body, project from either side at the point where the lamina joins thebetween the superior and inferior articular processes.
They also serve for the attachment of muscles and ligaments, in particular the.
There is a facet on each of the transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae which articulates with the.
A facet on each side of the thoracic vertebral body articulates with the.
There are superior and inferior on each side of the vertebra, which serve to restrict the range of movement possible.
These facets are joined by a thin portion of the vertebral arch called the.
The transverse process of a is also sometimes called the costal or costiform process because it corresponds to a rudimentary rib costa which, as opposed to the thorax, is not developed in the lumbar region.
There are thirty-three vertebrae in the human vertebral column—seventwelvefivefive fused forming the and three to fiveforming the.
The regional vertebrae increase in size as they progress downwards but become smaller in the coccyx.
These bones are, in general, small and delicate.
Their spinous processes are short with the exception of C2 and C7, which have palpable spinous processes.
C1 is also called theand C2 is also called the.
The structure of these vertebrae is the reason why the and have a large range of motion.
The allows the to move up and down, while the allows the upper neck to twist left and right.
The axis also sits upon the first intervertebral disc of the spinal column.
Cervical vertebrae possess transverse foramina to allow for the vertebral arteries to pass through on their way to the to end in the.
These are the smallest, lightest vertebrae and the vertebral foramina are triangular in shape.
The spinous processes are short and often the spinous process of C7, however, is not bifurcated, and is substantially longer than that of the other cervical spinous processes.
The atlas differs from the other vertebrae in that it has no body and no spinous process.
It has instead a ring-like form, having an anterior and a posterior arch and two lateral masses.
At the outside centre points of both arches there is a tubercle, an anterior tubercle and a posterior tubercle, for the attachment of muscles.
The front surface of the anterior arch is convex and its anterior tubercle gives attachment to the.
The posterior tubercle is a spinous process and gives attachment to the.
The spinous process is small so as not to interfere with the movement between the atlas and the.
On the under surface is a facet for articulation with the of the axis.
Specific to the cervical vertebra is the transverse foramen also known as foramen transversarium.
This is an opening on each of the transverse processes which gives passage to the and and a.
On the cervical vertebrae other than the atlas, the anterior and posterior tubercles are on either side of the transverse foramen on each transverse process.
The anterior tubercle on the sixth cervical vertebra is called the carotid tubercle because it separates the from the.
There is a hook-shaped uncinate process on the side edges of the top surface of the bodies of the third to the seventh cervical vertebrae, and also of the first thoracic vertebra.
go here with the vertebral disc, this uncinate process prevents a vertebra from sliding backwards off the vertebra below it and limits lateral flexion side-bending.
The spinous process on C7 is distinctively long and gives the name to this vertebra.
Also a can develop from C7 as an.
The term cervicothoracic is often used to refer to the cervical and thoracic vertebrae together, and sometimes also their surrounding areas.
Some rotation can occur between the thoracic vertebrae, but their connection with the prevents much flexion or other movement.
They may also be known as 'dorsal vertebrae', in the human context.
The vertebral bodies are roughly heart-shaped and are about as wide anterio-posterioly as they are in the transverse dimension.
Vertebral foramina are roughly circular in shape.
The top surface of the first thoracic vertebra has a hook-shaped uncinate process, just like the cervical vertebrae.
The term thoracolumbar is sometimes used to refer to the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae together, and sometimes also their surrounding areas.
The thoracic vertebrae attach to ribs and so have articular facets specific to them; these are theand.
As the vertebrae progress down the spine they increase in size to match up with the adjoining lumbar section.
They allow significant flexion, extension and moderate lateral flexion side-bending.
The discs between these vertebrae create a natural a spinal curvature that is concave posteriorly.
The lumbar vertebrae are located between the ribcage and the pelvis and are the largest of the vertebrae.
The pedicles are strong as are the laminae and the spinous process is thick and broad.
The vertebral foramen is large and triangular.
The transverse processes are long and narrow and three tubercles can be seen on them.
These are a lateral cosiform process, a mammillary process and an accessory process.
The superior, or upper tubercle is the mammillary process which connects with the superior articular process.
The attaches to the mammillary process and this muscle extends through the length of the vertebral column, giving support.
The inferior, or lower tubercle is the accessory process and this is found at the back part of play of duty black online free download base of the transverse process.
The term lumbosacral is often used to refer to the lumbar and sacral vertebrae together, and sometimes includes their surrounding areas.
The sacrum with the forms a on each side of thewhich articulates with the.
The sclerotomes form the vertebrae as well as the rib cartilage and part of the.
From their initial location within the somite, the sclerotome cells migrate medially towards the.
These cells meet the sclerotome cells from the other side of the.
The lower half of one sclerotome fuses with the upper half of the adjacent one to form each vertebral body.
From this vertebral body, sclerotome cells move dorsally and surround the developingforming the.
Other cells move distally to the costal processes of to form the ribs.
Vertebrae contain a for the passage of the spinal canal and its enclosed and covering.
They also afford sturdy protection for the spinal cord.
The upper and lower surfaces of the centrum are flattened and rough in order to give attachment to the intervertebral discs.
The vertebrae also provide the openings, the intervertebral foramina which allow the entry and exit of the.
Similarly to the surfaces of the centrum, the upper and lower surfaces of the fronts of the laminae are flattened and rough to give attachment to the.
Working together in the vertebral column their sections provide controlled movement and flexibility.
Others though can cause compression of the spinal cord.
Wedge-shaped vertebrae, called hemivertebrae can cause an angle to form in the spine which can result in the spinal curvature diseases ofand.
Severe cases can cause spinal cord compression.
In most cases this occurs in the lowest of the lumbar vertebrae L5but may also occur in the other lumbar vertebrae, as well as in the thoracic vertebrae.
This may be treated by a called.
A is a surgical operation to remove the laminae in order to access the spinal canal.
The removal of just part of a lamina is called thanks iphone spinning black screen confirm />A caused by pressure from a disc, vertebra or scar tissue might be remedied by a to broaden the intervertebral foramina and relieve pressure.
It can also be caused by a foraminaa narrowing of the nerve opening, as a result of.
Another condition is when one vertebra slips forward onto another.
The reverse of this condition is where one vertebra slips backwards onto another.
The vertebral pedicle is often used as a radiographic marker and entry point in, and procedures.
The is a common more frequently seen in females.
It is a bony bridge found on the first cervical vertebra, the atlas where it covers the groove for the.
This can often be a painfree condition but can also be very painful.
Because of the different types of locomotion and support needed between the aquatic and other vertebrates, the vertebrae between them show spinous process definition most variation, though basic features are shared.
The spinous processes which are backward extending are directed upwards in animals without an erect stance.
These processes can be very large in the larger animals since they attach to the muscles and ligaments of the body.
In the the vertebrae are connected by tight joints, which limit the backbone's flexibility.
Spinous processes are exaggerated in some animals, such as the andwhere they form a sailback or finback.
Vertebrae with saddle-shaped articular surfaces on go here bodies, called "heterocoelous", allow vertebrae to flex both vertically and horizontally while preventing twisting motions.
Such vertebrae are found in the necks of birds and some turtles.
An example of procoelous vertebrae about black lotus casino no deposit bonus codes november 2019 you from a rattlesnake.
These vertebrae are most often found inbut are found in some such as frogs.
The vertebrae fit together in a ball-and-socket articulation, in which the convex articular feature of an vertebra acts as the ball to the socket of a vertebra.
This type of connection permits a wide range of motion in most directions, while still protecting the underlying nerve cord.
The central point of rotation is located at the midline of each centrum, and therefore flexion of the surrounding the does not lead to an opening between vertebrae.
In many species, though not in mammals, the cervical vertebrae bear ribs.
In many groups, such as and dinosaurs, the cervical ribs are large; in birds, they are small and completely fused to the vertebrae.
The of mammals are homologous to the cervical ribs of other.
In the whale the cervical vertebrae are typically fused, an adaptation trading flexibility for stability during swimming.
All except and have seven cervical vertebrae, whatever the length of the neck.
This includes seemingly unlikely animals such as the giraffe, the camel, and the blue whale, for example.
In all mammals, the thoracic vertebrae are connected to and their bodies differ from the other regional vertebrae due to the presence of facets.
Each vertebra has a facet on each side of the vertebral body, which articulates with the.
There is also a facet on each of the transverse processes which articulates with the.
The number of thoracic vertebrae varies considerably across the species.
Most have thirteen, but only have spinous process definition />The norm is twelve to fifteen intwelve in thethough there are from eighteen to twenty in the, and.
In certain sloths there is an extreme number of twenty-five and at the other end only nine in the.
There are fewer lumbar vertebrae in andwhich have three in contrast to the five in the genus.
This reduction in number gives an inability of the lumbar spine to but gives an anatomy that favours vertical climbing, and hanging ability more suited to feeding locations in high-canopied regions.
The differs by having spinous process definition lumbar vertebrae.
Caudal vertebrae are the bones that make up the tails of vertebrates.
They range in number from a few to fifty, depending on the length of the animal's tail.
In humans and other taillessthey are called thenumber from three to five and are fused into the.
Retrieved May 7, 2017.
Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary 32nd ed.
Journal of Physiological Measurements.
Retrieved May 7, 2017.
Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary 32nd ed.
Vertebrates: comparative anatomy, function, evolution.
The Vertebrate Body 3 ed.
Philadelphia, Pa; London, W.
The British Medical Journal.
Osteology of the Reptiles.
Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company.
Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution 7 ed.
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Retrieved May 7, 2017.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Retrieved 1 February 2012.
O and McCullum, M.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences.
Vertebrates: comparative anatomy, function, evolution.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
By using this site, you agree to the and.
Wikipedia® read more a registered trademark of thea non-profit organization.

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1) Traditional chest radiographic findings that suggest aortic injury include mediastinal widening >8 cm, loss of clarity of the aortic knob, displacement of the nasogastric tube to the right of the T4 spinous process, left apical pleural capping, widened paraspinal lines, widened right paratracheal stripe >5 mm, and loss of the descending aortic line.


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1) Traditional chest radiographic findings that suggest aortic injury include mediastinal widening >8 cm, loss of clarity of the aortic knob, displacement of the nasogastric tube to the right of the T4 spinous process, left apical pleural capping, widened paraspinal lines, widened right paratracheal stripe >5 mm, and loss of the descending aortic line.


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It is the angle formed by a horizontal line drawn through the spinous process of the seventh cervical (C7) vertebra and a line joining the spinous process of C7 vertebra with the tragus of the ear [4,7,17].


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Spinous process definition: a slender bony projection | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples


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A spinous process fracture is a break in one or more of these sections. Most will heal without long-term damage. More severe spinous process fractures, called unstable fractures can result in spinal cord or nerve injury.


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Clay Shoveler’s Fracture Causes and Treatment. Fractures in the cervical spine can occur with acute or repetitive trauma. Clay shovelers fracture is an avulsion fracture of the spinous process. It occurs with abrupt flexion of the head such as found with motor vehicle accidents, diving, or wrestling injuries.


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Spinous process definition: a slender bony projection | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples


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Baastrup syndrome (also referred to as kissing spines) results from adjacent spinous processes in the lumbar spine rubbing against each other and resulting in hypertrophy and sclerosis with focal midline pain and tenderness relieved by flexion an...


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A section of theshowing multiple vertebrae in a left posterolateral view.
The basic configuration of a vertebra varies; the regret, black game for pc play free online something part is the body, and the central part is the centrum.
The upper and lower surfaces of the vertebra body give attachment to the.
The posterior part of a vertebra forms a vertebral arch, in eleven parts, consisting of two pedicles, two laminae, and seven.
The laminae give attachment to the ligaments of the spine.
There are vertebral notches formed from the shape of the pedicles, which form the when the vertebrae.
These foramina are the entry and exit conducts for the.
The body of the vertebra and the vertebral arch form the vertebral foramen, the larger, central opening that accommodates thewhich encloses and protects the.
Vertebrae articulate with each other to give strength and flexibility to the spinal column, and the shape at their back and front aspects determines the range of movement.
Structurally, vertebrae are essentially alike across the vertebrate species, with the greatest difference seen between an and other vertebrate animals.
As such, vertebrates take their name from the vertebrae that compose the vertebral column.
The size of the vertebrae varies according to placement in thespinal loading, posture and pathology.
Along the length of the the vertebrae change to accommodate different needs related to stress and mobility.
Anatomy of a vertebra Every vertebra has a body, which consists of a large anterior middle portion called the centrum plural centra and a posterior vertebral arch, also called a neural arch.
The body is composed ofwhich is the spongy type ofwhose micro-anatomy has been specifically studied within the pedicle bones.
This cancellous bone is in turn, covered by a thin coating of or compact bonethe hard and dense type of osseous tissue.
The vertebral arch and processes have thicker coverings of cortical bone.
The upper and lower surfaces of the body of the vertebra are flattened and rough in order to give attachment to the.
These surfaces are the vertebral endplates which are in direct contact with the intervertebral discs and form the joint.
The endplates are formed from a thickened layer of the cancellous bone of the vertebral body, the top layer being more dense.
The endplates function to contain the adjacent discs, to evenly spread the applied loads, and to provide anchorage for the of the disc.
They also act as a semi-permeable interface for the exchange of water and solutes.
The vertebral arch is formed by pedicles and laminae.
Two pedicles extend from the sides of the vertebral body to join the body to the arch.
The pedicles are short thick that extend, one from each side, posteriorly, from the junctions of the posteriolateral surfaces of the centrum, on its upper surface.
From each pedicle a broad plate, a lamina, projects backwards and medialwards to join and complete the vertebral arch and form the posterior border of the vertebral foramen, which completes the triangle of the vertebral foramen.
The upper surfaces of the laminae are rough to give attachment to the.
These ligaments connect the laminae of adjacent vertebra along the length of the spine from the level of the second cervical vertebra.
Above and below the pedicles are shallow depressions called vertebral notches superior and inferior.
When the vertebrae the notches align with those on adjacent vertebrae and these form the openings of the.
The foramina allow the entry and exit of the spinal nerves from each vertebra, together go here associated blood vessels.
The articulating vertebrae provide a strong pillar of support for the body.
There are seven processes projecting from the vertebra; a spinous process, two transverse processes, and four.
A major part of a vertebra is a backward extending spinous process sometimes called the neural spine go here projects centrally.
This process points and from the junction of the laminae.
The spinous process serves to attach and.
The two transverse processes, one on each spinous process definition of the vertebral body, project from either side at the point where the lamina joins thebetween the superior and inferior articular processes.
They also serve for the attachment of muscles and ligaments, in particular the.
There is a facet on each of the transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae which articulates with the.
A facet on each side of the thoracic vertebral body articulates with the.
There are superior and inferior on each side of the vertebra, which serve to restrict the range of movement possible.
These facets are joined by a thin portion of the vertebral arch called the.
The transverse process of a is also sometimes called the costal or costiform process because it corresponds to a rudimentary rib costa which, as opposed to the thorax, is not developed in the lumbar region.
There are thirty-three vertebrae in the human vertebral column—seventwelvefivefive fused forming the and three to fiveforming the.
The regional vertebrae increase in size as they progress downwards but become smaller in the coccyx.
These bones are, in general, small and delicate.
Their spinous processes are short with the exception of C2 and C7, which have palpable spinous processes.
C1 is also called theand C2 is also called the.
The structure of these vertebrae is the reason why the and have a large range of motion.
The allows the to move up and down, while the allows the upper neck to twist left and right.
The axis also sits upon the first intervertebral disc of the spinal column.
Cervical vertebrae possess transverse foramina to allow for the vertebral arteries to pass through on their way to the to end in the.
These are the smallest, lightest vertebrae and the vertebral foramina are triangular in shape.
The spinous processes are short and often the spinous process of C7, however, is not bifurcated, and is substantially longer than that of the other cervical spinous processes.
The atlas differs from the other vertebrae in that it has no body and no spinous process.
It has instead a ring-like form, having an anterior and a posterior arch and two lateral masses.
At the outside centre points of both arches there is a tubercle, an anterior tubercle and a posterior tubercle, for the attachment of muscles.
The front surface of the anterior arch is convex and its anterior tubercle gives attachment to the.
The posterior tubercle is a spinous process and gives attachment to the.
The spinous process is small so as not to interfere with the movement between the atlas and the.
On the under surface is a facet for articulation with the of the axis.
Specific to the cervical vertebra is the transverse foramen also known as foramen transversarium.
This is an opening on each of the transverse processes which gives passage to the and and a.
On the cervical vertebrae other than the atlas, the anterior and posterior tubercles are on either side of the transverse foramen on each transverse process.
The anterior tubercle on the sixth cervical vertebra is called the carotid tubercle because it separates the from the.
There is a hook-shaped uncinate process on the side edges of the top surface of the bodies of the third to the seventh cervical vertebrae, and also of the first thoracic vertebra.
Together with the vertebral disc, this uncinate process prevents a vertebra from sliding backwards off the vertebra below it and limits lateral flexion side-bending.
The spinous process on C7 is distinctively long and gives the name to this vertebra.
Also a can develop from C7 as an.
The term cervicothoracic is often used to refer to the cervical and thoracic vertebrae together, and sometimes also spinous process definition surrounding areas.
Some rotation can occur between the thoracic vertebrae, but their connection with the prevents much flexion or other movement.
They may also be known as 'dorsal vertebrae', in the human context.
The vertebral bodies are roughly heart-shaped and are about as wide anterio-posterioly as they are in the transverse dimension.
Vertebral foramina are roughly circular in shape.
The top surface of the first thoracic vertebra has a hook-shaped uncinate process, just like the cervical vertebrae.
The term thoracolumbar is sometimes used to refer to the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae together, and sometimes also their surrounding areas.
The thoracic vertebrae attach to ribs and so have articular facets specific to them; these are theand.
As the vertebrae progress down the spine they increase in size to match up with the adjoining lumbar section.
They allow significant flexion, extension and spinous process definition lateral flexion side-bending.
The discs between these vertebrae create a natural a spinal curvature that is concave posteriorly.
The lumbar vertebrae are located between the ribcage and the pelvis and are the largest of the vertebrae.
The pedicles are strong as are the laminae and the spinous process is thick and broad.
The vertebral foramen is large and triangular.
The transverse processes are long and narrow and three tubercles can be seen on them.
These are a lateral cosiform process, a mammillary process and an accessory process.
The superior, or upper tubercle is the mammillary process which connects with the superior articular process.
The attaches to the mammillary process and this muscle extends through the length of the vertebral column, giving support.
The inferior, or lower tubercle is the accessory process and this is found at the back part of the base of the transverse process.
The term lumbosacral is often used to refer to the lumbar and sacral vertebrae together, and sometimes includes their surrounding areas.
The sacrum with the forms a on each side of thewhich articulates with the.
The sclerotomes form the vertebrae as well as the rib cartilage and part of the.
From their initial location within the somite, the sclerotome cells migrate medially towards the.
These cells meet the sclerotome cells from the other side of the.
The lower half of one sclerotome fuses with the upper half of the adjacent one to form each vertebral body.
From this vertebral body, sclerotome cells move dorsally and surround the developingforming the.
Other cells move distally to the costal processes of to form the ribs.
Vertebrae contain a for the passage of the spinal canal and its enclosed and covering.
They also afford sturdy protection for the spinal cord.
The upper and lower surfaces of the centrum are flattened and rough in order to give attachment to the intervertebral discs.
The vertebrae also provide the openings, the intervertebral foramina which allow the entry and exit of the.
Similarly to the surfaces of the centrum, the upper and lower surfaces of the fronts of the laminae are flattened and rough to give attachment to the.
Working together in the vertebral column their sections provide controlled movement and flexibility.
Others though can cause compression of the spinal cord.
Wedge-shaped vertebrae, called hemivertebrae can cause an angle to form in the spine which can result in the spinal curvature diseases ofand.
Severe cases can cause spinal cord compression.
In most cases this occurs in the lowest of the lumbar vertebrae L5but may also occur in the spinous process definition lumbar vertebrae, as well as in the thoracic vertebrae.
This may be treated by a called.
A is a surgical operation to remove the laminae in order to access the spinal canal.
The removal of just part of a lamina is called a.
A caused by pressure from a disc, vertebra or scar tissue might be remedied by a to broaden the intervertebral foramina and relieve pressure.
It can also be caused by a foraminaa narrowing of the nerve opening, as a result of.
Another condition is when one vertebra slips forward onto another.
The reverse of this condition is where one vertebra slips backwards onto another.
The vertebral pedicle is often used as a radiographic marker and entry point in, and procedures.
The is a common more frequently seen in females.
It is a bony bridge found on the first cervical vertebra, the atlas where it covers the groove for the.
This can often be a painfree condition but can also click at this page very painful.
Because of the different types of locomotion and support needed between the aquatic and other vertebrates, the vertebrae between them show the most variation, though basic features are shared.
The spinous processes which are backward extending are directed spinous process definition in animals without an erect stance.
These processes can be very large in the larger animals since they attach to the muscles and ligaments of the body.
In the the vertebrae are connected by tight joints, which limit the backbone's flexibility.
Spinous processes are exaggerated in some animals, such as the andwhere they form a sailback or finback.
Vertebrae with saddle-shaped articular surfaces on their bodies, called "heterocoelous", allow vertebrae to flex both vertically and horizontally while preventing twisting motions.
Such vertebrae are found in the necks of birds and some turtles.
An example of procoelous vertebrae dissected from a rattlesnake.
These vertebrae are most often found inbut are found in some such as frogs.
The vertebrae fit together in a ball-and-socket articulation, in which the convex articular feature of an vertebra acts as the ball to the socket of a vertebra.
This type of connection permits a wide range of motion in most directions, while still protecting the underlying nerve cord.
The central point of rotation is located at the midline of each centrum, and therefore flexion of the surrounding the does not lead to an opening between vertebrae.
In many species, though not in mammals, the cervical vertebrae bear ribs.
In many groups, such as and dinosaurs, the cervical ribs are large; in birds, they are small and completely fused to the vertebrae.
The of mammals are homologous to the cervical ribs of other.
In the whale the cervical vertebrae are typically fused, an adaptation trading flexibility for stability during swimming.
All except and have seven cervical vertebrae, whatever the length of the neck.
This includes seemingly unlikely animals such as the giraffe, the camel, and the blue whale, for example.
In all mammals, the thoracic vertebrae are connected to and their online free black mirror differ from the other regional vertebrae due to the presence of facets.
Each vertebra has a facet on each side of the vertebral body, which articulates with the.
There is also a facet on each of the transverse processes which articulates with the.
The number of thoracic vertebrae varies considerably across the species.
Most have thirteen, but only have eleven.
The norm is twelve to fifteen intwelve in thethough there are from eighteen to twenty in the, and.
In certain sloths there is an extreme number of twenty-five and at the other end only nine in the.
There are fewer lumbar vertebrae in andwhich have three in contrast to the five in the genus.
The differs by having four lumbar vertebrae.
Caudal vertebrae are the bones that make up the tails of vertebrates.
They range in number from a few to fifty, depending on the length of the animal's tail.
In humans and other taillessthey are called thenumber from three to five and are fused into the.
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Journal of Physiological Measurements.
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Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary 32nd ed.
Vertebrates: comparative anatomy, function, evolution.
The Vertebrate Body 3 ed.
Philadelphia, Pa; London, W.
The British Medical Journal.
Osteology of the Reptiles.
Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company.
Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution 7 ed.
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences.
Vertebrates: comparative anatomy, function, evolution.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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